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State of Knowledge of Endocrine Disruptors and Pharmaceuticals in Drinking Water State of Knowledge of Endocrine Disruptors and Pharmaceuticals in Drinking Water PDF By author Joerg E. Drewes last download was at 2018-08-16 24:33:54. This book is good alternative for Host Cell Capture-Quantitative Sequence Detection of Potentially Infectious Viruses. Download now for free or you can read online State of Knowledge of Endocrine Disruptors and Pharmaceuticals in Drinking Water book. Over the past decade, EDCs and PPCPs have become a major issue for drinking water utilities. The public, scientists, and regulators all have begun actively investigating this issue, and utilities are often tasked with addressing and communicating complex and sometime conflicting scientific data. In recent times, many utilities have been faced with difficult requests from the community regarding occurrence, treatment, and health relevance data.

This report serves to provide utilities with summary data useful in addressing these requests. The objective of this project was to develop a concise review on the state of knowledge of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in drinking water so water utilities can communicate with customers and make internal decisions on monitoring and treatment options.


The purpose of the guide was to summarize the history, analytical methods, bioassays, occurrence, health relevance, and communication issues regarding endocrine disruptors and pharmaceuticals. Literature regarding EDCs and PPCPs in water was evaluated for applicability to drinking water utilities. Suitable data was determined by publication in peer-reviewed literature, data from within the research team and funding agency, and through suggestions from the Project Advisory Committee. It was not feasible, nor particularly useful, to review every chemical that could be considered a suspected EDC or a PPCP. Therefore, a subset of chemicals was chosen that are representative of the subclasses and types of EDCs and PPCPs that are of current scientific and public interest. The wealth of data evaluated was summarized into succinct chapters that provide the key findings of the review, while providing references for those who seek detailed information.

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May 9, 2000 17.95 MB State of Knowledge of Endocrine Disruptors and Pharmaceuticals in Drinking Water1    0 4
Contribution of Service Line and Plumbing Fixtures to Lead and Copper Rule Compliance Issues Contribution of Service Line and Plumbing Fixtures to Lead and Copper Rule Compliance Issues PDF By author Anne Sandvig last download was at 2018-06-03 59:25:03. This book is good alternative for Host Cell Capture-Quantitative Sequence Detection of Potentially Infectious Viruses. Download now for free or you can read online Contribution of Service Line and Plumbing Fixtures to Lead and Copper Rule Compliance Issues book. Implementation of the Lead and Copper Rule (LCR) has resulted in significant reductions in first liter standing lead levels measured at the tap in the United States. However, there are still utilities that have implemented optimal treatment but may still experience lead levels at or near the action level for lead, or those that would like to go a step further in reducing lead levels measured in their system by proactively replacing lead source materials. For these utilities, and water works and regulatory communities as a whole, an understanding of the contributions that various lead based materials may have on lead levels measured at the tap would be useful.

The objective of this research project was to evaluate the contribution of lead service lines and utility and customer-owned plumbing components to Lead and Copper Rule (LCR) compliance issues. The results of this project also address the broader long-term goals of moving the industry towards a new "lead free" future and providing information that can be directly applied to future regulatory reviews of the LCR. This project utilized information from historical literature, conducted a national survey of lead source characteristics, completed case studies of lead source removal and corrosion treatment effectiveness, and completed field and pilot study activities designed to estimate the contributions of various lead sources to lead levels measured at the tap. This information was used to evaluate the relative contribution of various lead sources to lead levels at the tap and how these contributions might affect compliance with the LCR. In addition, an assessment of the impact of pipe cutting tools was completed to provide guidance on the best methods for removing lead service lines. The composition of scales built up on lead source materials was evaluated to expand the knowledge base related to identification of compounds that form on leaded materials in drinking water systems and correlations between these scales and distributed water quality conditions.

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October 2, 2010 567.86 kB Contribution of Service Line and Plumbing Fixtures to Lead and Copper Rule Compliance Issues3    0 0
Identification of Heterotrophic Bacteria That Colonize Chloraminated Drinking Water Distribution Systems Identification of Heterotrophic Bacteria That Colonize Chloraminated Drinking Water Distribution Systems PDF By author D. Noguera last download was at 2018-08-27 54:10:59. This book is good alternative for Host Cell Capture-Quantitative Sequence Detection of Potentially Infectious Viruses. Download now for free or you can read online Identification of Heterotrophic Bacteria That Colonize Chloraminated Drinking Water Distribution Systems book. Bacterial regrowth in chloraminated distribution systems encompasses the growth of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB), and heterotrophs. While it has been demonstrated that Nitrosomonas oligotropha and Nitrospira spp. are ubiquitous AOB and NOB, respectively, in the drinking water environment, information regarding the identity of heterotrophic bacteria in chloraminated systems is limited. This project was aimed at filling this gap in knowledge by identifying heterotrophs using a 16S rRNA-based molecular biology approach.

The objectives of this project were to (1) identify the heterotrophic bacteria that colonize chloraminated distribution systems using bench-scale, pilot-scale, and full-scale environments, (2) determine whether bench-scale and pilot-scale chloraminated systems are adequate models of full-scale chloraminated distribution systems, in regards to heterotrophic bacteria, and (3) explore the development of an automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA)-based screening test to identify culturable heterotrophic bacteria in drinking water distribution systems. A molecular biology approach based on the 16S rRNA as a phylogenetic marker was used to identify the heterotrophic bacteria. In addition, ARISA was used for community fingerprinting. Finally, ARISA was explored as a rapid screening and identification test for colonies grown in agar plates.


The following environments were studied: Two bench-scale reactors simulating chloraminated and non-chloraminated environments, respectively. Two pilot-scale distribution systems operated at the University of Wisconsin (UW) and two pilot-scale systems operated by the Louisville Water Company. The UW systems evaluated chloramine dose, while the Louisville systems compared the absence of chloramines with chloramines plus chlorite. Finished water and two water tanks in the distribution system at Louisville. For all environments, only bulk water samples were analyzed.

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September 26, 2007 89.3 MB Identification of Heterotrophic Bacteria That Colonize Chloraminated Drinking Water Distribution Systems0    0 2
Workforce Planning for Water Utilities Successful Recruiting, Training, and Retaining of Operators and Engineers Workforce Planning for Water Utilities Successful Recruiting, Training, and Retaining of Operators and Engineers PDF By author A. Manning last download was at 2018-03-11 05:14:35. This book is good alternative for Host Cell Capture-Quantitative Sequence Detection of Potentially Infectious Viruses. Download now for free or you can read online Workforce Planning for Water Utilities Successful Recruiting, Training, and Retaining of Operators and Engineers book. Several factors are converging simultaneously to create a "perfect storm" in today's utility workforce: the mass exodus of utility employees that is anticipated due to retirement in the next 10 years, the increasing diversity in the current workforce, fewer U.S. college graduates earning science or technical degrees, and values differences in younger generations of employees entering the labor market. A shift in approach to utility operations is required in order to be prepared for this pending labor crisis.

The objectives of this project were to identify (1) future labor pools for engineer and operator positions; (2) utilities' short and long term needs for operators and engineers; (3) "attractors" that will draw the younger generations to utilities as a highly desired place of employment; (4) recruiting, training, and retention methods that have elicited successful results in other industries and guidelines for applying those strategies in the utility industry; (5) recommendations for improvements in training and certification programs; and (6) elements of utility culture that will build an organization's reputation as an employer of choice to multiple generations of employees.


Primary research consisted of a survey of utilities that identified the current state of the industry in terms of success of recruiting, training, and retaining operators and engineers. Also, interaction with students and young professionals took place, first in a "reverse career fair" conducted at ACE and WEFTEC that involved completion of an online survey that assessed important job factors for the GEN Y population and then in focus groups also conducted at ACE and WEFTEC. Secondary research was conducted that included identifying successful recruitment and retention strategies from other industries and completing a demographic analysis on new and existing pools of potential workers as well as channels to reach those pools. The results of the research were then compiled into industry-wide and utility specific strategies for recruiting and retaining engineers and operators.

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September 27, 2016 25.1 MB Workforce Planning for Water Utilities Successful Recruiting, Training, and Retaining of Operators and Engineers5    0 3
Toxicological Relevance of EDCs and Pharmaceuticals in Drinking Water Toxicological Relevance of EDCs and Pharmaceuticals in Drinking Water PDF By author Shane A. Snyder last download was at 2017-07-04 38:24:42. This book is good alternative for Host Cell Capture-Quantitative Sequence Detection of Potentially Infectious Viruses. Download now for free or you can read online Toxicological Relevance of EDCs and Pharmaceuticals in Drinking Water book. Analytical technology has made it possible to detect and quantify nearly any compound known to humankind at diminishingly minute concentrations in water. Although the earliest reports of pharmaceuticals and steroid hormones in water date back nearly four decades, it is only within the past decade that the subject has come to the forefront of scientific and public attention. Today, we know definitively that trace levels of pharmaceuticals, potential EDCs, and other emerging contaminants do occur in source water, and to a lesser extent, in finished drinking water. Based on research thus far, it appears that many conventional and advanced treatment processes will greatly reduce the concentrations of these compounds. Nevertheless, considering the continued advancements in analytical technologies, today's non-detectable contaminants will be tomorrow's emerging contaminants. If presence/absence becomes our litmus test for risk and subsequent actions, treatment technology will be increasingly, and perhaps unnecessarily, costly and energy intensive. This is an especially important consideration due to the energy cost and greenhouse gas emissions of advanced treatment. For these reasons, it is of utmost importance to determine human health-based screening levels from which meaningful treatment goals and analytical detection limits can be established.

The primary objective of this project was to establish a suite of indicator pharmaceuticals and potential endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) to be used for evaluating the exposure and health implications from drinking water. A secondary objective was the development of robust analytical methods to identify and quantify the indicator compounds in raw and finished drinking water. The final objective was the evaluation of toxicity data with occurrence data in order to develop a human health risk assessment for indicator pharmaceuticals and potential EDCs in U.S. drinking waters. A suite of 62 indicator pharmaceuticals and potential EDCs were selected based upon literature reviews of potential for toxicity, propensity for occurrence, and analytical capability. Robust analytical methods utilizing isotope-dilution and tandem mass spectrometry were developed in order to monitor the raw and finished waters of 20 U.S. drinking water facilities with ng/L sensitivity. An in vitro bioassay was used to screen for estrogenicity in the same waters. A series of bottled waters and food and beverage items were also screened for estrogenicity for a benchmark comparison. Risk evaluations for exposure through drinking water were conducted for 16 pharmaceuticals, 10 potential EDCs, and 3 steroid hormones. ADIs were calculated using methods consistent with USEPA approaches for determining levels of exposure to environmental contaminants.

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March 5, 2011 66.55 MB Toxicological Relevance of EDCs and Pharmaceuticals in Drinking Water5    0 4
Design, Operation, and Maintenance for Sustainable Underground Storage Facilities Design, Operation, and Maintenance for Sustainable Underground Storage Facilities PDF By author H. Bouwer last download was at 2018-03-17 25:24:40. This book is good alternative for Host Cell Capture-Quantitative Sequence Detection of Potentially Infectious Viruses. Download now for free or you can read online Design, Operation, and Maintenance for Sustainable Underground Storage Facilities book. Achieving a sustainable, reliable drinking water supply has emerged in recent years as an increasingly important goal, not only in the United States but also worldwide. This is being driven by population growth, increasing water demands, declining groundwater levels, contamination of water sources, greater awareness of adverse environmental impacts, concern regarding the potential impacts of global warming, and many other factors. Among the many methods that are being applied to achieve this goal, managed aquifer recharge is proving to be viable and cost-effective. Recent advances in the science of aquifer recharge, including the geochemistry, microbiology, and hydraulics, provide a strong foundation for the successful implementation of aquifer recharge projects. However, to achieve success, it is necessary to understand the lessons learned, taking advantage of good ideas that worked and not repeating the ideas that did not work.

The overall goal of this project was to identify technical variables that result in successful design, operation, and maintenance of sustainable underground storage (SUS) facilities. The key objectives of the project were to increase the available knowledge base of SUS facilities throughout the United States, survey a variety underground storage facilities, identify and evaluate sites where SUS performance failed to meet objectives, address the use of SUS to reduce the vulnerability of water facilities, and create an easy-to-use, practical guidance document and outreach program to distribute research findings.


The final report discusses surface and well recharge methods and includes a concise summary of the most important lessons learned from the 22 operating and failed recharge sites that were visited. It also includes a proposed analytical approach that may be applied for water utilities to reduce their vulnerability to service interruption and thereby enhance their system reliability. The appendix includes case studies for the 18 operating and four failed SUS facilities that were visited as part of this project. These are presented on a CD, providing useful perspectives regarding how different water utility systems have approached the need for SUS.

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September 19, 2015 948.23 kB Design, Operation, and Maintenance for Sustainable Underground Storage Facilities2    0 1
Utility Benchmarking and Regulation in Developing Countries Utility Benchmarking and Regulation in Developing Countries PDF By author Silver Mugisha last download was at 2018-03-03 03:19:60. This book is good alternative for Host Cell Capture-Quantitative Sequence Detection of Potentially Infectious Viruses. Download now for free or you can read online Utility Benchmarking and Regulation in Developing Countries book. Utility performance, especially in developing countries is still working toward the standard necessary to deliver best practice. Utility Benchmarking and Regulation in Developing Countries examines performance monitoring and regulation as a prominent efficiency enhancement tool and clarifies many of the unknowns regarding the design and approach surrounding the area of utility management. Principles and practices are linked in a way that is informative and accessible, highlighting the challenges facing those who are trying to improve performance in the water sector. Operational settings are complex and unpredictable in developing countries due to inadequate infrastructure planning and this book makes clear which systems work best in these situations.


Utility Benchmarking and Regulation in Developing Countries discusses performance monitoring in the critical areas of utility management that achieve sustainable performance goals:


Performance development planning
Modes of performance monitoring
Provocative approaches to incentives creation
Monitoring through high incentive plans
Customer relations monitoring
Pro-poor oriented monitoring
Careful use of partial performance indicators
Proposed indicators for assessing governance incentives



A case study on the National Water and Sewerage Corporation, Uganda is included in the book detailing the difficulties in discerning performance progress based on partial performance indicators. It underlines disparities in basing performance conclusions on partial performance indicators on one hand and aggregate analysis using modern benchmarking toolkits on the other. This is an excellent handbook for utility monitors or regulators whose primary duty is to oversee performance management. It is a valuable resource for decision-makers, analysts, and policy-makers and can be used in capacity-building programs (both in-house and in universities) around the world.

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August 4, 2012 534.85 kB Utility Benchmarking and Regulation in Developing Countries0    0 5
Strategic Risk Communications Process for Biosolids Land Application Programs Strategic Risk Communications Process for Biosolids Land Application Programs PDF By author Sergey Sivaev last download was at 2018-06-27 12:13:46. This book is good alternative for Host Cell Capture-Quantitative Sequence Detection of Potentially Infectious Viruses. Download now for free or you can read online Strategic Risk Communications Process for Biosolids Land Application Programs book. The long-term viability and sustainability of biosolids land application is dependent on continuously earning stakeholder confidence, trust and support. This requires ongoing and effective engagement and communication with key stakeholders about the beneficial use of biosolids in their communities. The goal of the risk communications research was to develop processes, tools and materials to help biosolids managers conduct effective outreach and dialogue with key stakeholders in the communities where they operate, first on biosolids land application and its beneficial use, then on specific challenges such as communicating about potential health risks due to pathogens in biosolids.


The researchers developed a state-of-the-science Strategic Risk Communications Process, tools and materials that can be adapted and used by biosolids program managers. The Process was applied and validated through two case studies, which involved in-depth research with landowners who receive biosolids and neighbors to biosolids land application sites and, in one case, community health officials.



The research demonstrated that the key influence on these stakeholders' judgments on the acceptability of biosolids land application is the trust they have in the people who are producing the product, the people who are using the product and the people are overseeing and ensuring the safe appropriate use of biosolids. These stakeholders recognized the benefits and risks associated with biosolids land application and support its beneficial use. However, their support was not unconditional - they had questions about the long-term health and environmental impacts of such application. The process, tools and materials developed through this project will serve to address these and other key questions, while enabling biosolids managers to continually build stakeholder support for biosolids land application.

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July 22, 1997 13.59 MB Strategic Risk Communications Process for Biosolids Land Application Programs1    0 3
Site Specific Risk Assessment Tools for Land Applied Biosolids Site Specific Risk Assessment Tools for Land Applied Biosolids PDF By author Patrick L. Gurian last download was at 2017-01-26 12:16:14. This book is good alternative for Host Cell Capture-Quantitative Sequence Detection of Potentially Infectious Viruses. Download now for free or you can read online Site Specific Risk Assessment Tools for Land Applied Biosolids book. Available as eBook only.


This report describes a linked environmental dispersion, exposure, and health effects model, known as the Spreadsheet Microbial Assessment of Risk: Tool for Biosolids ("SMART Biosolids") which has been developed to assess the relative risk of human infection from direct or indirect exposure to land-applied biosolids.



SMART Biosolids assesses risk associated with land-applied biosolids through five pathways: (1) inhalation of aerosols from land application sites, (2) consumption of groundwater contaminated by land-applied biosolids, (3) direct ingestion of biosolids-amended soils, (4) ingestion of plants contaminated by land-applied biosolids, and (5) consumption of surface water contaminated by runoff from a land application site. SMART Biosolids focuses on risk to highly exposed individuals who are land application field workers, or residents of homes adjacent to sites.



The SMART Biosolids model enables wastewater utilities, land applicators, and regulators, to estimate the exposure to pathogenic microorganisms from biosolids land application under a variety of scenarios and thereby gain insight into effective management practices. This report describes how to use SMART Biosolids and provides technical documentation for the mathematical methods used by the model.

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February 24, 2005 549.48 kB Site Specific Risk Assessment Tools for Land Applied Biosolids0    0 5
Control of Distribution System Water Quality Using Inhibitors Control of Distribution System Water Quality Using Inhibitors PDF By author J. Taylor last download was at 2017-11-08 00:43:15. This book is good alternative for Host Cell Capture-Quantitative Sequence Detection of Potentially Infectious Viruses. Download now for free or you can read online Control of Distribution System Water Quality Using Inhibitors book. Tampa Bay Water (TBW) manages a number of city and county drinking water resources and has recently had to use finished waters produced from saline and surface water sources to supplement their groundwater supplies. Drinking water utilities in Florida and similar environments have historically relied on groundwater, but overreliance on the source has led to the pursuit of other multiple sources. Finished water quality varies by source and the effects of corrosion inhibitors on distribution water quality are unknown. Hence, the capabilities of corrosion inhibitors to offset the adverse effects of changing finished water quality on distribution system water quality needs to be investigated.

This study was conducted to investigate the capabilities of corrosion inhibitors (orthophosphate (OP), zinc orthophosphate (ZOP), blended ortho-polyphosphate (BOP), silicate, or pH only inhibition) to offset the adverse effects of changing finished water quality on distribution system water quality. Eighteen PDS's and two pilot treatment systems were used for this project. The 14 hybrid PDS's from four different pipe materials were used for the inhibitor study while the other four single material lines were used to investigate the effect of turbulence on chloramine decay.


Twelve thousand gallons of conventionally treated groundwater and desalinated groundwater from the two pilot processes on site and from the TBW regional surface water treatment plant were used each week. Water was blended at predetermined ratios and distributed to the PDS's. BOP, OP, ZOP, silicate inhibitors, and NaOH (pH only) were added to the PDS's. Phosphate inhibitors were dosed at 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/L as P; silicate inhibitors were dosed at 3, 6, and 12 mg/L as SiO2; and two PDS's were maintained at pHs and pHs+0.3. Physical, chemical, and biological changes were monitored throughout the PDS's. This work has shown that inhibitor addition was necessary to control Fe, Cu, and Pb release in high alkalinity finished water and provide a higher water quality to consumers. Models relating EN to Fe, Cu, and Pb release predicted metal release as accurate, less costly, and more rapid than water quality models. Inhibition addition did not affect chloramine residual but was shown to increase biological activity in distribution systems.

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May 11, 2017 936.84 kB Control of Distribution System Water Quality Using Inhibitors2    0 0
A Simulation Tool to Assess Contaminant Warning System Sensor Performance Characteristics A Simulation Tool to Assess Contaminant Warning System Sensor Performance Characteristics PDF By author S. McKenna last download was at 2018-05-28 44:06:06. This book is good alternative for Host Cell Capture-Quantitative Sequence Detection of Potentially Infectious Viruses. Download now for free or you can read online A Simulation Tool to Assess Contaminant Warning System Sensor Performance Characteristics book. Water utilities are faced with the ongoing need to provide safe, contaminant-free water to their customers. Contamination sources can include compromised source water that penetrates treatment barriers or intentional contamination attacks from disaffected groups or terrorist organizations. In nearly all contamination event scenarios, early detection and response can help reduce public health risk and impact. To that end, contaminant warning systems offer advantages over more traditional and slower means of contaminant detection and the ability to evaluate various contaminant warning system designs using simulation methods prior to procurement and installation is a desirable capability.

The purpose of this project was to develop a simulation tool to assess overall contaminant warning system (CWS) performance under various contamination event scenarios and to incorporate specific sensor performance characteristics in the tool to more realistically assess how sensor operational parameters can influence overall system performance. A sensor simulator was configured to mimic such sensor attributes as sensitivity, sampling rate, and drift using various mathematical and statistical algorithms. The spatial and temporal features of chemical contamination events were modeled using a pipe model of a real water distribution system and EPANET. The resulting contaminant pulse shapes at specific locations within the distribution system were combined with normal water quality background signals and processed through the sensor simulator. The sensor-altered signal was then further processed through a second event detection algorithm. Contaminant event detection statistics were then compiled and analyzed to assess overall system performance.


This study has shown that simulation methods can be successfully used to evaluate contaminant warning system designs for user-specified chemical contamination events. Specific sensor performance attributes can be configured within the simulation to allow comparison of various commercial sensor options in a utility-specific contaminant warning system design. Initial testing results reveal that most commercial sensors perform equally well in chemical contamination events of moderate intensity with sensor sampling frequency being one of the most important sensors attributes that influences overall system performance.

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February 7, 2002 155.8 kB A Simulation Tool to Assess Contaminant Warning System Sensor Performance Characteristics3    0 2
Effect of Pathogen Load on Pathogen Removal by Conventional Treatment : Awwarf Report 91221 Effect of Pathogen Load on Pathogen Removal by Conventional Treatment : Awwarf Report 91221 PDF By author B. Lau last download was at 2017-12-16 52:26:39. This book is good alternative for Host Cell Capture-Quantitative Sequence Detection of Potentially Infectious Viruses. Download now for free or you can read online Effect of Pathogen Load on Pathogen Removal by Conventional Treatment : Awwarf Report 91221 book. The overall goal of this study was to evaluate pathogen removals in conventional water treatment at pathogen concentrations nearer to those found in the aquatic environment. Specific objectives included (1) measurement of pathogen removal at concentrations of 101 pathogens/L rather than 106 pathogens/L, (2) comparison of grab and composite sampling methods, and (3) comparison of alternative enumeration procedures.

In the Long-Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule, conventional treatment plants received a 3-log credit for oocyst removal if they met the filtration requirements of the rule. This credit was based largely on experiments with pathogen concentrations 6 to 8 orders of magnitude higher than those observed in practice. Thus, there is considerable uncertainty about pathogen removals that would be attained under more realistic situations. The removal of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts through conventional treatment was observed to depend on initial pathogen spike dose. Removal increased with increasing spike dose and statistical analyses suggested that log removal differences between low and high concentration trains were statistically significant in most cases. This was consistent with fundamental expectations. Similar results were observed for the unit processes of sedimentation and granular media filtration. Composite sampling with continuous flow separation channel centrifugation allowed for better detection of pathogens in filter effluent due to increased sample volume.

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July 10, 2012 51.96 MB Effect of Pathogen Load on Pathogen Removal by Conventional Treatment : Awwarf Report 912215    0 1
Chemical Processes for Water and Wastewater Treatment Chemical Processes for Water and Wastewater Treatment PDF By author Simon Parsons last download was at 2017-11-15 10:42:59. This book is good alternative for Host Cell Capture-Quantitative Sequence Detection of Potentially Infectious Viruses. Download now for free or you can read online Chemical Processes for Water and Wastewater Treatment book.
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December 14, 2003 488.26 kB Chemical Processes for Water and Wastewater Treatment0    0 3
Private Sector Participation in Water Infrastructure : OECD Checklist for Public Action Private Sector Participation in Water Infrastructure : OECD Checklist for Public Action PDF By author OECD: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development last download was at 2017-04-29 30:21:31. This book is good alternative for Host Cell Capture-Quantitative Sequence Detection of Potentially Infectious Viruses. Download now for free or you can read online Private Sector Participation in Water Infrastructure : OECD Checklist for Public Action book. Part of OECD Water Policy and Finance Set - Buy all four reports and save over 30% on buying separately!


Many countries have sought the involvement of the private sector to upgrade and develop their water and sanitation infrastructure and improve the efficiency of water systems. However, high capital intensity, large initial outlays, long pay-back periods, immobility of assets and low rates of return generate high risks. These factors, when combined with poor initial information and weak investment environment, limit the scale of private sector participation in water and sanitation infrastructure.



Recognising this, the OECD has developed practical guidance, building on the OECD Principles for Private Sector Participation in Infrastructure, to help governments and other stakeholders to assess and manage the implications of involving private actors in the financing, development and management of water and sanitation infrastructure. The resulting OECD Checklist for Public Action provides a coherent catalogue of policy directions for consideration by governments, including appropriate allocation of roles, risks and responsibilities, framework conditions and contractual arrangements necessary to make the best of private sector participation and harness more effectively the capacities of all stakeholders.



This title is co-published with the OECD



See also: Public and Private Participation in the Water and Wastewater Sector - Developing Sustainable Legal Mechanisms, Cledan Mandri-Perrott, 2009; Public Private Partnerships in the Water Sector, Innovation and Financial Sustainability, Cledan Mandri-Perrott and David Stiggers, 2012

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November 26, 2016 46.43 MB Private Sector Participation in Water Infrastructure : OECD Checklist for Public Action3    0 5
Water Utility Benchmarking Water Utility Benchmarking PDF By author Sanford V. Berg last download was at 2017-03-25 35:13:44. This book is good alternative for Host Cell Capture-Quantitative Sequence Detection of Potentially Infectious Viruses. Download now for free or you can read online Water Utility Benchmarking book. Benchmarking is essential for those developing and implementing water policy. If decision-makers do not know where they have been or where they are, it would seem to be impossible to set reasonable targets for future performance. Information on water/sewerage system (WSS) operations, investments, and outputs is essential for good management and oversight. This book is designed to help decision makers identify the data required for performance comparisons over time and across water utilities, to understand the strengths and limitations of alternative benchmarking methodologies, and to perform (or commission) benchmark studies.


This book provides an overview of the strengths and limitations of different methodologies for making performance comparisons over time and across water utilities (metric benchmarking). In addition, it identifies ways to determine the robustness of performance rankings. Current benchmarking activities in Latin America, Asia, Africa, Central Europe/Asia, and OECD nations are summarized.



Five basic approaches to benchmarking characterize current studies: Core indicators and a summary or overall performance Indicator (partial metric method), Performance scores based on production or cost estimates ("total" methods), Performance relative to a model company (engineering approach), Process benchmarking, and Customer survey benchmarking.



This volume is of interest to the water professionals, water utility managers and senior staff of regulatory agencies, professionals in related government agencies, and consultants.



Visit the IWA WaterWiki to read and share material related to this title: http://www.iwawaterwiki.org/xwiki/bin/view/Articles/InfrastructureRegulationStateOwnedEnterprisesVsInvestor-ownedInfrastructureOperators

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August 22, 2014 588.32 kB Water Utility Benchmarking3    0 1
Water Framework Directive : Model supported Implementation Water Framework Directive : Model supported Implementation PDF By author Fred F. Hattermann last download was at 2017-12-18 47:12:37. This book is good alternative for Host Cell Capture-Quantitative Sequence Detection of Potentially Infectious Viruses. Download now for free or you can read online Water Framework Directive : Model supported Implementation book. Special Offer: Water Framework Directive Series Set. Visit www.iwapublishing.com to buy all four titles including Volume 3 and save GBP100!


Water resources planning and management and the development of appropriate policies requires methodologies and tools that are able to support systematic, integrative and multidisciplinary assessments at various scales. It also requires the quantification of various uncertainties in both data and models, and the incorporation of stakeholders participation and institutional mechanisms into the various tools and risk assessment methodologies, to help decision makers understand and evaluate alternative measures and decisions. This requirement has been explicitly recognised in the context of the European Union Water Framework Directive (WFD).



This book is one of the concrete outcomes of the Harmoni-CA concerted action (supported by the European Commission). It provides a framework for model-supported participatory planning of measures at various river basin scales and practical guidance to water managers and other interested stakeholders on the model-supported implementation of the WFD. The objective of the book is to offer guidance to water managers on the model-supported implementation of the Water Framework Directive at the level of a river basin district and at other levels (such as sub-basins, national, or international scale in the case of international river basins). It should help water managers to better understand how models may be used for planning purposes, while special attention is given to the problem of predicting an uncertain future, one very likely to differ from the present.



Six case studies from different parts of Europe are provided to illustrate the practical applicability of the planning framework in the WFD implementation. They are very important for illustrating how concepts from earlier parts of the document are applied to real-world situations. The case studies cover several aspects of mesoscale river basin management, water quantity and quality issues, and the role of modelling, with two case studies located in pilot river basins. This text is intended for use by water managers and hydrologists engaged in the implementation of the Water Framework Directive.



The other three volumes in the Water Framework Directive Series are:

Modelling Aspects of Water Framework Directive Implementation - Volume 1 edited by Prof. Peter A. Vanrolleghem
Integrated Assessment for WFD implementation: Data, economic and human dimension - Volume 2 edited by Peter A. Vanrolleghem
Decision support for WFD implementation - Volume 3 edited by Peter A. Vanrolleghem

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July 15, 2004 88.31 MB Water Framework Directive : Model supported Implementation0    0 1
Urban Hydroinformatics : Data, Models and Decision Support for Integrated Urban Water Management Urban Hydroinformatics : Data, Models and Decision Support for Integrated Urban Water Management PDF By author Roland Price last download was at 2018-08-28 16:24:26. This book is good alternative for Host Cell Capture-Quantitative Sequence Detection of Potentially Infectious Viruses. Download now for free or you can read online Urban Hydroinformatics : Data, Models and Decision Support for Integrated Urban Water Management book. Urban Hydroinformatics: Data, Models and Decision Support for Integrated Urban Water Management is an introduction to hydroinformatics applied to urban water management. It shows how to make the best use of information and communication technologies for manipulating information to manage water in the urban environment. The book covers the acquisition and analysis of data from urban water systems to instantiate mathematical models or calculations, which describe identified physical processes. The models are operated within prescribed management procedures to inform decision makers, who are responsible to recognized stakeholders. The application is to the major components of the urban water environment, namely water supply, treatment and distribution, wastewater and storm water collection, treatment and impact on receiving waters and groundwater, and urban flooding.



Urban Hydroinformatics pays particular attention to modeling, decision support through procedures, economics and management, and implementation in developing countries. The book is written with Post-graduate students, researchers and practicing engineers in all aspects of urban water management in mind.



Visit the IWA WaterWiki to read an article by the authors: http://www.iwawaterwiki.org/xwiki/bin/view/Articles/Urbanhydroinformatics



This title is now available in Hardback: please note change of ISBN from 9781843392743 to 9781780401362.

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March 1, 2000 677.95 kB Urban Hydroinformatics : Data, Models and Decision Support for Integrated Urban Water Management0    0 5
TECHNEAU : Safe Drinking Water from Source to Tap TECHNEAU : Safe Drinking Water from Source to Tap PDF By author Christian Kazner last download was at 2018-08-11 16:11:58. This book is good alternative for Host Cell Capture-Quantitative Sequence Detection of Potentially Infectious Viruses. Download now for free or you can read online TECHNEAU : Safe Drinking Water from Source to Tap book. The best papers from the three-day conference on Safe Drinking Water from Source to Tap June 2009 in Maastricht are published in this book covering the themes of challenges of the water sector and adaptive strategies, treatment, distribution, risk assessment and risk management, sensors and monitoring, small scale systems, simulation, alternative water supply & sources, consumer involvement, and future drinking water. Worldwide, the water supply sector is facing tremendous challenges. Every new emerging contaminants and pathogens and aging infrastructures that are vulnerable for deliberate contamination pose a threat to the quality of water supplies. Shortage of good quality and readily treatable resources is increasing due to global warming, urbanisation and pollution from agriculture and industry. Regulators and consumers are becoming more demanding.


Techneau - the largest European project on drinking water - addresses these challenges by developing adaptive supply system options and new and improved treatment and monitoring technologies. Future system options to be studied are flexible, small scale and multi-source supplies, utilising non conventional resources like brackish ground water, treated wastewater and urban groundwater.

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October 31, 2008 898.14 kB TECHNEAU : Safe Drinking Water from Source to Tap1    0 0
Southeast Asian Water Environment 3 Southeast Asian Water Environment 3 PDF By author Hiroyasu Satoh last download was at 2018-05-20 38:55:42. This book is good alternative for Host Cell Capture-Quantitative Sequence Detection of Potentially Infectious Viruses. Download now for free or you can read online Southeast Asian Water Environment 3 book. The Southeast Asian environment has been degraded by the release of industrial and domestic wastes, agricultural and aquacultural chemicals, and pollutants from automobiles. It suffers from water-related disasters, such as tsunamis, floods, typhoons, etc. In order to deal with these issues an integrated approach from the inhabitants, governments and researchers is essential. The environmental threats arising from the increasing population, overuse of natural resources, industrialization, urbanization, and natural disasters present ever increasing challenges to pursuing sustainable development of the region. Many developed countries such as Japan have experiences of dealing with severe environmental pollution and this publication is the result of building an academic network among researchers of related fields from different regions to exchange information.


The most important articles presented at the Fourth and Fifth International Symposiums on Southeast Asian Water Environment have been selected for this book. This book will be an invaluable source of information for all those concerned with achieving global sustainability within the water environment in developing regions, including researchers, policy makers, NGOs and NPOs.

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November 9, 2015 68.77 MB Southeast Asian Water Environment 35    0 0
Handbook on Particle Separation Processes Handbook on Particle Separation Processes PDF By author Arjen Van Nieuwenhuijzen last download was at 2017-02-17 53:06:36. This book is good alternative for Host Cell Capture-Quantitative Sequence Detection of Potentially Infectious Viruses. Download now for free or you can read online Handbook on Particle Separation Processes book. Particles in water play an important role in all kinds of water quality and treatment issues. Since the early beginnings of centralised water production and treatment, the main goal of water purification was primarily the removal of water turbidity in order to produce clear water free from visible particles.


The Handbook on Particle Separation Processes provides knowledge and expertise from a selected group of international experts with a wealth of experience in the field of particles and particle separation in water and wastewater treatment. The Handbook on Particle Separation Processes includes an edited selection of presentations and workshops held at the academic summer school Particle Separation in Water and Wastewater Treatment, organised under the supervision of the IWA Specialist Group Particle Separation.

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August 9, 2013 48.11 MB Handbook on Particle Separation Processes0    0 4
Sludge Reduction Technologies in Wastewater Treatment Plants Sludge Reduction Technologies in Wastewater Treatment Plants PDF By author Giuliano Ziglio last download was at 2017-08-05 58:45:24. This book is good alternative for Host Cell Capture-Quantitative Sequence Detection of Potentially Infectious Viruses. Download now for free or you can read online Sludge Reduction Technologies in Wastewater Treatment Plants book. Sludge Reduction Technologies in Wastewater Treatment Plants is a review of the sludge reduction techniques integrated in wastewater treatment plants with detailed chapters on the most promising and most widespread techniques.


The aim of the book is to update the international community on the current status of knowledge and techniques in the field of sludge reduction. It will provide a comprehensive understanding of the following issues in sludge reduction: principles of sludge reduction techniques; process configurations; potential performance; advantages and drawbacks; economics and energy consumption. This book will be essential reading for managers and technical staff of wastewater treatment plants as well as graduate students and post-graduate specialists.

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November 24, 1997 1.70 MB Sludge Reduction Technologies in Wastewater Treatment Plants0    0 5
Optimizing Filtration and Disinfection Systems with a Risk-Based Approach Optimizing Filtration and Disinfection Systems with a Risk-Based Approach PDF By author Werf last download was at 2017-01-20 04:48:38. This book is good alternative for Host Cell Capture-Quantitative Sequence Detection of Potentially Infectious Viruses. Download now for free or you can read online Optimizing Filtration and Disinfection Systems with a Risk-Based Approach book. Treated wastewater effluents contain high concentrations of particles; many of these particles are large (with diameters greater than 100 m) and consist of densely-packed bacterial cells. Microorganisms occluded in wastewater particles can be difficult to inactivate in chlorine disinfection systems, as the chlorine must first diffuse through the macro- and microscopic pore spaces prior to inactivating the occluded microorganisms. The impact of microorganisms occluded in particles is evident in disinfection, where reduced inactivation rates occur even with increasing doses of the disinfectant. Reduction of occluded microorganisms in plant effluents can be accomplished using filtration to remove the total number of particles, and disinfection to ensure that intra-particle chlorine concentrations are sufficient to inactivate the occluded microorganisms.


In addition to addressing inactivation of dispersed microorganisms, treatment systems design and operation should include consideration of the removal of microorganisms in wastewater particles that may pose a health risk in post-treated waters. In this project, a systematic approach was developed to co-optimize filtration and chemical disinfection systems to collectively reduce the concentration of occluded viable microorganisms in treated effluents to acceptable levels. The optimization process was successfully applied to wastewater samples collected from seven facilities, each with different treatment trains. A range of operating conditions was identified that resulted in acceptable treatment based on particle guidelines developed using the existent regulatory framework for indicator organisms. Extension of the current approach to a pathogen basis was considered, but current data are insufficient to adopt such a procedure although preliminary results suggest that intra-particle chlorine concentrations that are sufficient to inactivate indicator organisms may not be adequate to sufficiently reduce concentrations of occluded pathogens.

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March 4, 2000 77.70 MB Optimizing Filtration and Disinfection Systems with a Risk-Based Approach5    0 5
Infiltration vs. Surface Water Discharge : Guidance for Stormwater Managers Infiltration vs. Surface Water Discharge : Guidance for Stormwater Managers PDF By author Shirley E. Clark last download was at 2017-08-21 48:46:44. This book is good alternative for Host Cell Capture-Quantitative Sequence Detection of Potentially Infectious Viruses. Download now for free or you can read online Infiltration vs. Surface Water Discharge : Guidance for Stormwater Managers book. Available as an eBook only.


Stormwater managers are increasingly faced with the need to address many potentially-conflicting issues as part of their activities, ranging from flood prevention to protection of downstream habitat. New urban development philosophies, such as low impact development, no adverse impact, water-sensitive urban drainage systems, etc., establish goals similar to other professions - Do No Harm. This is addressed often through criteria such as maintaining pre-development hydrology to the maximum extent practicable after development with treatment provided to reduce pollutants to their pre-development level. These new management plans incorporate both infiltration and surface treatment/discharge into the development.


A series of flowcharts were developed to aid stormwater managers in stepping through the process of selecting an appropriate management/treatment technology that meets both the low-impact goals and the regulatory requirements. These charts refer to the specific document sections that address the issues of concern that should be considered when selecting appropriate stormwater practices. Appendices were developed to provide supporting information for users not familiar with the terminology (Glossary in Appendix A) or the methods and supporting literature. This work has been based on the literature and guidance documents developed around the world. Surface-treatment technologies such as detention and filtration have a long history with much literature published about them. They are better understood than the infiltration practices currently gaining favor. Therefore, several chapters are devoted to the concerns associated with selecting infiltration.



The desire to incorporate infiltration raises two potential concerns: 1) acceptance of small-scale infiltration devices, especially by the regulatory authorities, and 2) the potential for groundwater contamination. For the first concern, Appendix B summarizes several references on the issues raised by current stormwater management authorities regarding low impact development and infiltration devices dispersed throughout a watershed. The second concern is that the potential for groundwater contamination is not well-known or documented. Pollutant removal in the subsurface has not been addressed regularly by authors who have either advocated infiltration and/or researched the effectiveness of infiltration at reducing surface water discharge volumes and pollutant loadings, although more recent reports are providing data showing both pollutant removals in the surface discharge, plus subsurface water quality.



The third activity under this literature review/guidance document development activity was to identify questions/data gaps in the selection and use of stormwater treatment devices, with a focus on infiltration. The following questions were raised. How effective are current and proposed stormwater management techniques at protecting surface water quality and habitat, as well as protecting groundwater? Groundwater and vadose zone water chemistry information is limited in the literature; it comes primarily from laboratory investigations or basins where the soil has been engineered. Few studies have looked at transport of stormwater-borne pollutants in the vadose zone of non-engineered soils. What soil and water chemistry data should be collected to improve the understanding of pollutant transport? Can water and wastewater treatment theory provide a better foundation in the models that predict BMP performance? Would this reduce the uncertainty that has to be associated with every stormwater pollutant removal calculation? Water and wastewater theory has been applied successfully to the design of sedimentation devices, but it has not been as successful at predicting pollutant removal in filtration or infiltration devices. How do the chemicals secreted by microorganisms affect pollutant mitigation in the surface and subsurface environment? What role does the local microbiological flora and fauna play in the trapping of pollutants and in the release of previously-trapped pollutants? If infiltration is selected as a stormwater management technique, what issues of concern must be addressed outside of the pollutant transport?



Issues to be addressed during treatment device selection include, but are not limited to, the following: groundwater mounding (and localized basement flooding), transport of pollutants through the subsurface to the groundwater, increased maintenance of the infiltration basins, interference with septic tanks and leach fields, soil stability problems due to longer periods where the soil is `wet', legal issues of increased flooding and/or reduced slope stability.

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October 29, 2006 34.61 MB Infiltration vs. Surface Water Discharge : Guidance for Stormwater Managers4    0 0
Inspection Guidelines for Wastewater Force Mains Inspection Guidelines for Wastewater Force Mains PDF By author James C. Thomson last download was at 2017-10-18 00:32:44. This book is good alternative for Host Cell Capture-Quantitative Sequence Detection of Potentially Infectious Viruses. Download now for free or you can read online Inspection Guidelines for Wastewater Force Mains book. Available as an eBook only.


This report brings together a body of information on the characteristics of the wastewater force main network and the most common defects encountered. The technologies and methods used by utilities to inspect the force mains to identify and locate these defects are identified together with what are the perceived unmet needs. This report provides a comprehensive review of the current state-of-the-art in inspection technology for pressure pipelines. It also reviews the data management and processing and considers the application, effectiveness, and suitability of the technologies reviewed for use in force mains. The report also provides a risk-based failure evaluation.


Innovative inspection technologies and methods for force main inspection are reviewed under five categories: 1) external inspection of ferrous force mains, 2) internal inspection of ferrous force mains, 3) inspection of asbestos cement force mains, 4) inspection of prestressed concrete cylinder pipe force mains, 5) inspection of plastic force mains. The study includes 10 case studies of actual inspections undertaken on pressure mains using technologies reviewed in the report. It proposes a structured approach to force main investigation driven by information need and cost-effectiveness within a condition assessment and asset assessment program. It provides guidelines for developing and implementing force main inspection programs.

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January 19, 2017 75.56 MB Inspection Guidelines for Wastewater Force Mains0    0 3
Low Phosphorus Analytical Measurement Study Low Phosphorus Analytical Measurement Study PDF By author Jonathan P. Clampet last download was at 2017-03-16 59:54:24. This book is good alternative for Host Cell Capture-Quantitative Sequence Detection of Potentially Infectious Viruses. Download now for free or you can read online Low Phosphorus Analytical Measurement Study book. Available as eBook only.


Phosphorus measurements at very low concentrations have been tested and proven to be unreliable. The establishment of stricter phosphorus discharge requirements has challenged the wastewater facilities to be capable of measuring low phosphorus concentrations (20 μg/L) in the effluent. The major challenge associated with low phosphorus measurements seems to be related to the sample matrix and the digestion methodologies. The results of total phosphorus measurements in wastewater effluent, high quality deionized water samples, and orthophosphate measurements in wastewater effluent samples show a broad variability. In contrast, the orthophosphate measurements in the deionized water matrix spiked to 3 μg/L and 6 μg/L show an insignificant variability.


The Ascorbic Acid Method seems to be a reliable technique to measure orthophosphate at low levels. The findings of the current study have demonstrated that as the phosphorus concentration increases, the variability decreases. A good reliable analytical process is needed to provide information to regulators for setting sound permit limits and by utilities required to meet those limits. Current methods show significant variability at very low (

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May 19, 2015 62.53 kB Low Phosphorus Analytical Measurement Study5    0 4
Collection System Ventilation Collection System Ventilation PDF By author Dirk Apgar last download was at 2017-06-19 36:03:24. This book is good alternative for Host Cell Capture-Quantitative Sequence Detection of Potentially Infectious Viruses. Download now for free or you can read online Collection System Ventilation book. Available as eBook only.


This report presents the methodology and findings of the Collection System Ventilation Research project completed in Phase II of the WERF initiative Minimizations of Odors and Corrosion in Collection Systems. The purpose of the study was to measure air ventilation within full-scale gravity collection system components; simultaneously measure parameters related to ventilation; use the field experimental results to evaluate current ventilation models; and develop a concept for an improved ventilation model. Experiments were completed at four different locations within the Los Angeles and King County wastewater collection systems. Subject components were concrete gravity pipes ranging in diameter from 33 to 96 inches. Air velocity was measured within each pipe using a carbon monoxide pulse tracer method. Air velocity was measured entering or exiting the components at vents using a stand pipe and hotwire anemometer arrangement. Ambient wind speed, temperature, and relative humidity; headspace temperature and relative humidity; and wastewater flow and temperature were measured. All parameters were logged continuously using data loggers.



The field experiments resulted in a large database of measured ventilation and related parameters characterizing ventilation in full-scale gravity sewers. The field data were used as input to three current ventilation models (each using a different technology) to evaluate the models' accuracy compared to the measured field data. Strengths and weaknesses of each model were assessed. Finally, observations from the study were used to develop a concept for an improved ventilation model based on conservation of momentum equations in connected collection system components.

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November 21, 2011 239.29 kB Collection System Ventilation0    0 4
Non-traditional Indicators of System Performance Non-traditional Indicators of System Performance PDF By author Stephen Nutt last download was at 2017-01-22 47:35:44. This book is good alternative for Host Cell Capture-Quantitative Sequence Detection of Potentially Infectious Viruses. Download now for free or you can read online Non-traditional Indicators of System Performance book. Available as an eBook only.


The use of real-time sensors and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems has become commonplace in large centralized wastewater treatment systems. On-line sensors and SCADA systems have not been widely used in smaller decentralized systems, possibly due to perceptions of high cost for installation and maintenance, and perceptions of poor reliability. However, the cost effectiveness and reliability of the technology has been demonstrated in larger systems and should be transportable to smaller clustered, decentralized systems.


The research project is focused on assessing on-line sensing and data acquisition technologies applicable for use in decentralized wastewater treatment systems to provide real-time information on the performance and operational status of the facility. The results of this study will be documented to provide a guide to wastewater facility managers, operators and designers for selecting real-time sensors and SCADA systems for decentralized wastewater treatment facilities. Improved remote monitoring and operating of these facilities should provide facilities with a cost-effective means to manage and improve the performance of decentralized wastewater treatment plants.

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June 15, 2003 90.84 MB Non-traditional Indicators of System Performance4    0 4
Characterizing the Quality of Effluent and Other Contributory Sources During Peak Wet Weather Events : Werf Report 03-cts-12pp/Ppa Characterizing the Quality of Effluent and Other Contributory Sources During Peak Wet Weather Events : Werf Report 03-cts-12pp/Ppa PDF By author Donald M. D. Gray last download was at 2017-08-30 18:06:59. This book is good alternative for Host Cell Capture-Quantitative Sequence Detection of Potentially Infectious Viruses. Download now for free or you can read online Characterizing the Quality of Effluent and Other Contributory Sources During Peak Wet Weather Events : Werf Report 03-cts-12pp/Ppa book. Available as an eBook only.


This study evaluates the impacts of blending practices at municipal wastewater treatment plants on effluent and receiving water quality, and estimates public health risks associated with recreation in surface waters receiving blended flows. Field samples were collected at four municipal wastewater treatment plants for in-plant processes and receiving waters during wet weather blending, wet weather non-blending, and dry weather events. Laboratory analyses for Giardia, Cryptosporidium, viruses (adenovirus, enteric viruses, rotavirus, norovirus), pathogen indicator organisms (fecal coliform, E. coli, enterococcus, and male specific coliphage), and other water quality parameters were performed on these samples. Field sample results for the East Bay Municipal Utility District's (EBMUD) Main Wastewater Treatment Plant were used to develop a hydrodynamic and water quality computer models to predict receiving water conditions and a quantitative microbial risk assessment (MRA) to evaluate increased risks of gastrointestinal and respiratory infections for people recreating in waters receiving blended flows.


EBMUD field sampling results indicated that Giardia and adenovirus concentrations in plant final effluent increased during wet weather blending events in comparison to non-blending events, and so receiving water modeling was conducted for these organisms. T-test results indicated that the differences between blending and non-blending were not considered to be statistically significant for any of the pathogen and indicator organisms except Giardia cysts (enumeration). Additionally, TSS, cBOD5 and particle concentrations from final effluent grab samples also appeared higher during blending events, but no increase was observed in VOC levels during these periods, and no NPDES permit limits were exceeded.



An estimate of the incremental annual number of infections associated with blending practices at EBMUD's wastewater treatment plant was developed based on two pathogens (adenovirus and Giardia spp.) and three exposure sites. Estimated individual risk per exposure event for people recreating in waters receiving blended flows were greater by about an order-of-magnitude (10x) at the EBMUD MWWTP Outfall location and less than an order-of-magnitude (10x) at three other exposure sites, than if these blended flows received full secondary biological treatment during wet weather conditions. Thus the relative increase of annualized risk appeared negligible, at less than one infection annually assuming 100 exposure events per day for 30 blending days per year.

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February 28, 1999 429.74 kB Characterizing the Quality of Effluent and Other Contributory Sources During Peak Wet Weather Events : Werf Report 03-cts-12pp/Ppa5    0 2
Disinfecting and Stabilizing Biosolids Using E-Beam and Chemical Oxidants Disinfecting and Stabilizing Biosolids Using E-Beam and Chemical Oxidants PDF By author Robert S. Reimers last download was at 2017-08-17 22:58:38. This book is good alternative for Host Cell Capture-Quantitative Sequence Detection of Potentially Infectious Viruses. Download now for free or you can read online Disinfecting and Stabilizing Biosolids Using E-Beam and Chemical Oxidants book. Available as an eBook only.


Municipal sewage and sludges can harbor a variety of infectious microorganisms as well as estrogenic compounds and their metabolites. Biosolids and other residuals generated from municipal wastewater treatment facilities need to be used for beneficial purposes such as land application. To reduce the potential for adverse environmental and human impacts, it is critical that novel approaches be investigated so that municipal biosolids can be disinfected and stabilized to reduce the pathogen loads and levels of estrogenic compounds.


The overall objective of this project was to demonstrate the disinfection and enhanced stabilization of municipal biosolids when high energy (10 MeV) Electron Beam (e-beam) technology is coupled with oxidants such as chlorine dioxide and ferrate. High energy E-Beam is effective as a disinfection technology. Significant reductions of all target organisms can be achieved in municipal biosolids depends on the dose that is employed. An e-beam treatment system utilizing 15 kGy e-beam dose has been designed and mathematically modeled and validated. Based on these engineering design considerations, e-beam treatment was shown to be cost-effective. There was synergistic disinfection of pathogens when e-beam is coupled with oxidants such as chlorine dioxide and ferrate. E-Beam at 8 kGy was unable to destroy estrogenic activity in the sludge samples. Ferrate (100 ppm) was capable of destroying estrogenic activity in the biosolid samples with or without the addition of e-beam irradiation. Chlorine dioxide (100 ppm) was not effective at destroying the estrogenic activity either by itself or in combination with e-beam. The combination of 100 ppm of ferrate with 8 kGy of e-beam promoted the stabilization of aerobic and anaerobic sludge samples as indicated by BOD, VSS and SOUR test results. The results demonstrate that 10 MeV e-beam is capable of cost-effectively inactivating a variety of bacterial and viral pathogens in aerobically and anaerobically digested biosolids. Overall, these results suggest that when e-beam is combined with ferrate significant reductions of microbial pathogens, estrogenic compounds and biosolid stabilization can be achieved.

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September 28, 1999 65.84 MB Disinfecting and Stabilizing Biosolids Using E-Beam and Chemical Oxidants4    0 1
Sediments Contamination and Sustainable Remediation Sediments Contamination and Sustainable Remediation PDF By author Yoshio Sato last download was at 2018-01-30 28:54:44. This book is good alternative for Host Cell Capture-Quantitative Sequence Detection of Potentially Infectious Viruses. Download now for free or you can read online Sediments Contamination and Sustainable Remediation book. A comprehensive resource on contaminated sediments, this book opens with discussions of the contamination of sediments resulting from discharge of pollutants, excessive nutrients, and other hazardous substances from anthropogenic activities. It examines impacts observed as a result of these discharges, including the presence of hazardous materials and the phenomenon of eutrophication, and elucidates the remediation techniques developed to restore the health of sediments and how to evaluate the remediation technologies using indicators. The text highlights the problems inherent when dealing with contaminated sediments in rivers, lakes, and estuaries and includes numerous case studies that illustrate key concepts.

This title is co-published with CRC Press

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June 21, 2002 325.25 kB Sediments Contamination and Sustainable Remediation2    0 2